30-й выпуск журнала „Диалог со временем“

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Номер выпуска: 30
Год выпуска: 2010
Страниц: 416
ISSN: 2073-7564

Содержание выпуска


    ТЕОРИИ И МЕТОДЫ ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЙ НАУКИ: ПО ИТОГАМ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ


  1. The author analyses the role of the mechanisms of collective consciousness and its deeply rooted stereotypes in defining the spontaneous anthropomorphic features of social groups. The former could not be verified or falsified; they are protected by axiological cover and are interpreted by historians as an object of metaphysical speculations. The latter have ethnic character, and attempts to overcome them are illusory.
  2. The author compares the classical German Historismus of the 19th c. with contemporary neo-institutionalism that studies ways through which traditional social institutions accumulate historical experience and use it to control the behavior of their contemporaries. The notions of collective learning and path dependence are analyzed.
  3. The author deals with the principles of choosing objects for comparative analysis, its epistemology and narrative modes. He studies the forms of prerequisite knowledge, and the epistemological dilemma of reading in and reading out. The author stresses the danger of symmetry and identity that could arise in the process of comparing. He singles out and evaluates naïve comparisons, as well as the positive and negative sides of the use of theoretical (comprehensive) model.
  4. The author analyses epistemological basis of studying historical motivations for work as human need that is being realized in the activity of separate individuals. He uses method of empathy and demonstrates those types of behavior that were condemned or accepted by the society at different times.

  5. ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЕ ИЗМЕРЕНИЕ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОГО


  6. The author traces the emergency of modern frontiers’ status and makes a distinction between modern and pre-modern frontiers. He opposes linear frontiers to frontiers between two zones (including the zones of dominance and its absence). Examples are – the American frontier, the problems of Alsace and Lorraine. The author emphasizes the need to take into consideration the role of the war between France and Prussia as well as of the French Revolution.

  7. ИСТОРИЯ, РЕЛИГИЯ, КУЛЬТУРА


  8. The article is based on the analysis of the ‘Opus Majus’ by Roger Bacon and focused on the Franciscan’s arguments used in his polemic against the formal logical discourse typical for scholastical disputations. Experience was not understood so much as a result of perceptions but rather it was personal spiritual experience combined with the experience of the divinely inspired Apostles.
  9. The author investigates the ”Convocation Sermon” as the major source for understanding of peculiarities of the religious thinking of the English Renaissance. The recognition of the exclusive social position of clergy as an intermediary between the God and the people; the ascertaining of the discrepancy between the secular oriented clergy and its spiritual mission; an appeal for the Church’ return to the missing ascetical and apostolic ideal, and strongly pronounced evangelism – those were the most inherent features in the ecclesiology of J. Colet.
  10. The article studies the publications of English translations of Catholic religious texts in 1559–1640. The author analyses the dynamics of publications, languages of original editions, genres of the texts as well as the groups of people connected with the translations – translators, publishers and patrons. The role of books in shaping and functioning of the English Catholic community is shown.

  11. ИСТОРИЯ ИДЕЙ, ПОНЯТИЙ, ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЙ


  12. The author presents a detailed textual analysis of the famous Russian epic poem of the 12th c. and called in question the traditional interpretation of it. In the author’s opinion, the ‘Tale’ was not a political appeal to Russian audience and does not call Russian principalities to unite in the face of common enemy but it was a moral treatise that tells one of the danger of personal ambitions and passions that lead one to catastrophe.
  13. The article deals with the shaping of Russian ethnic identity in the context of the ideas of ‘nation’ and ‘race’ that emerged in Western Europe in the 18th c. Following European tendencies Catherine II and Russian educated elite were interested in ‘constructing’ of ethnic identity even if the constructs hardly had anything to do with reality.

  14. ИЗ ИСТОРИИ ИСКУССТВА


  15. The article deals with the history of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture that started from the Art class in 1833. The author challenges the version accepted by the Soviet historiography (according to it the Class was organized by artists). It is shown that the Class was established by the members of Moscow nobility. The role of trustees and the Moscow authorities is dem-onstrated.
  16. The article presents the study of transformation of ‘classical theme in the work by Isedora Duncan: the ballerina’s interest in Greek culture, adoption and interpretation of Ancient models, creation of a new dance rooted in modernist culture. The author traces Duncan’s gradual departure from Ancient images, her use of new Soviet mythology in an attempt to make art more accessible to unsophisticated viewers, and the submission of Duncan’s work to the tendencies of mass culture.
  17. The article deals with the specific of German bookbinding in the 16th century and is focused on a book from the collection of the Dukes of Kurland. It is shown that versions of bindings’ design depended on the book’s purpose. A great deal of attention is paid to works by Kaspar Moizer and Jacob Crause and their distinct style.
  18. The article shows the development of art in East Germany after the World War II – from various meanings to clichés – and point out to its characteristics – specific combinations of humanism and de-humanisation, involvement into politics, a view according to which it was possible to convert an uncompromising (antibourgeois) antinazism into socialism.

  19. ИЗ ИСТОРИИ НАУКИ


  20. The article is dedicated to the relations of the two distinguished Russian scholars in the context of heir professional activity. The author presents the detailed analysis of the personal and professional life of M.S. Kutorga – a well-known specialist on Ancient history; his influence over N.I. Kareyev is emphasized.
  21. The article presents the history of the State Academy of the history of material culture (STHMC). It was created in 1919 as a successor of the Imperial Archaeological commission. The authors draw attention to the works of the scholars in the firlds of the archaeology of agriculture of archiaic societies on the material from Siberia and other regions of Russia. It is shown that these works influenced the concept of historical formation that was of paramount importance for the Soviet historical thought.

  22. ПРИГЛАШЕНИЕ К ДИСКУССИИ


  23. The article traces the processes that have helped the history of civilizations to regain topicality. In 1990s civilization studies were criticized in the context of postcolonial discourse where it was linked with the discourse of domination and the ideology of civilizing. It is shown that contemporary authors prefer to preserve chronological and epistemological distance between themselves and the tradition of civilizing.
  24. The author deals with the problem of interaction between secular positivist discourse of historical sociology and transcendental and sacral determination of historical process. The concept of the three stages of civilization is seen as a way to deconstruct intellectual history that preceded Nietsche’s ideas and led to emergence of an artificial secular religion, to dogmatism and reductionism. Elimination of religious component left gaps in semantic configuration of sociological discourse. Restoration of moral and religious component is necessary in order to create historical theo-anthroposociology based on principled theocentrism and methodological sociocentrism.

  25. ИНТЕРВЬЮ


  26. The article presents a study of Kazan’s everyday life in a period of active social mobility and is focused on the organization of recreation space and on the demarcation of certain zones within the city that had been ‘appropriated’ by various social groups. A good deal of attention is paid to the interaction of ethnic recreation zones – ‘Russian’ and ‘Tatar’ districts and public places. It is shown that recreation zones for various social groups were often juxtaposed and enabled social diffusion.

  27. В ПРОСТРАНСТВЕ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ ИСТОРИИ


  28. The article is focused on the structure of Russian military elite of the early 20th c. The author analyses ethnic and confessional structure of the Imperial Guards. He points out that by the beginning of the Wolrd War I members of German and Swedish families played an important role in the Imperial Guard and Russian military elite.
  29. The article presents the everyday life of peasants after the Revolution and the Civil War as defined by difficult material conditions, archaic life models, low standards of living. The authorities introduced new values ad symbols that destroyed the stereotypes of the peasants’ world image.
  30. The authors look at the history of the Don region during the period of transition from the policy of ‘war communism’ to that of the NEP. It is demonstrated that the transition was long, difficult and was accompanied by political struggle, which sometimes turned into actual fighting.

  31. ЧИТАЯ КНИГИ